• Andi Andi Petra Christian University, Surabaya
  • Albert Cahyono Petra Christian University, Surabaya
  • Roy Hartawan Petra Christian University, Surabaya


The nature of construction projects exposes people (construction personnel and workers) to danger. This thus requires various forms of protection (defenses) to intervene between the hazards and their possible accidents. This research aims to identify various safety defenses employed in construction projects and pinpoint the causes of defenses failures. Data for the research were gathered through questionnaire survey. A total of 321 respondents from eleven ongoing construction projects participated in the survey. The results show that in general the respondents emphasize more on hard defenses. In the mean time there are some disagreements between the construction staffs and workers regarding to the causes of defenses failures, i.e. latent conditions and unsafe acts. The research compares the need and reality of safety defenses implementation.

How to Cite
ANDI, Andi; CAHYONO, Albert; HARTAWAN, Roy. SAFETY DEFENSES in CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. EACEF - International Conference of Civil Engineering, [S.l.], v. 1, p. 154, aug. 2011. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 12 aug. 2020.