PAYMENT for ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES (PES) to SUSTAIN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE
Recently, mass media has reported that electricity scarcity will happen in Indonesia. Some regions in Indonesia get electricity service which is generated by hydroelectric power (PLTA) that withdraws water from dam or reservoir. If sedimentation rate in a dam is increasing rapidly annually, then it will disturb the performance of hydroelectric power system and can stop its system operation. PLTA PB Sudirman located in Banjarnegara Regency is one of hydroelectric power system in Indonesia that has been stopped operating due to sedimentation (personal communication, 2006). Typically, reservoir sedimentation in Indonesia is mostly caused by uncontrolled erosion rate. Erosion process depends on some aspects such as topography, climatology, geology, and land-use pattern. Land-use pattern depends on human activities regarding to land management. Therefore, erosion control and human activities are interdependent. Payment for environmental services (PES) is a scheme of funding to support environmental management involving all stakeholders in both upstream and downstream area of a watershed or catchment area. Usually, the receiver of the funding is community living in the upstream area of a watershed. The funding is usually used for environmental conservation to reduce problem happened due to environmental degradation in a watershed, such as flood, landslide, erosion, and water quality degradation. If such problems in a watershed could be minimized, it could give some advantages that will support sustainable water infrastructure. PES has been successfully implemented in some countries such as Costa Rica, USA, Philippines, and Ecuador. We can learn from these countries experiences in implementing PES.